The *Value Investing* framework of Benjamin Graham — Warren Buffett's mentor — uses a combination of the *Price-to-Earnings* and *Price-To-Book* ratios, giving more comprehensive insight than either ratio used alone.

## The Ratios

### Price-to-Earnings (P/E)

*Earnings Per Share (EPS)* indicates how much profit the company makes per share.

*EPS* combined with *Price* gives an idea of the rate of return one can expect on one's investment. *EPS* and *Price* are usually measured together as the *P/E ratio*, or *Price-to-Earnings ratio*.

### Price-To-Book (P/B)

*Book Value Per Share (BVPS)* is the theoretical liquidation value of the stock. *BVPS* indicates how much one would be paid per share if the company were to close tomorrow.

*BVPS* combined with *Price* gives a rough idea of the collateral on one's investment. *BVPS* and *Price* are usually measured together as the *P/B ratio*, or *Price-to-Book ratio*.

## Graham Number

Graham required that a stock for *Defensive* investment should have:

6. Current price should not be more than 15 times average earnings of the past three years.

7. Current price should not be more than 1½ times the book value last reported.

As a rule of thumb we suggest that the product of the multiplier times the ratio of price to book value should not exceed 22.5.

These two rules together yield what is known today as the *Graham Number*. The *Intrinsic Value* of an *Defensive* grade stock is therefore its *Graham Number*.

Note: The *"multiplier"* Graham refers to is simply another term for the *P/E Ratio*.

### Graham Number(%)

*Graham Number(%)* is *Graham Number ÷ Previous Close*.

So a stock with a *Graham Number(%)* of *200%* will have a *P/E* value of *7.5* and a *P/B* value of *0.75* — or a higher value in one corresponding to a lower value in the other — yielding a total multiple of *5.625 (22.5 ÷ 2²)*.

Note: The *Graham Number*, despite its higher versatility, is part of a framework and not meant to be used in isolation.

*Graham Number(%)* is thus a combination of the *Price-to-Earnings* and the *Price-To-Book* ratios, and yields better results than either ratio used on its own.

## Serenity Number

For more *Enterprising* (or *aggressive*) investors, Graham recommended:

"issues selling at multipliers under 10... Price: Less than 120% net tangible assets."

These rules yield a similar price calculation, referred to on *GrahamValue* as the *Serenity Number*.

### Intrinsic Value(%)

*Intrinsic Value(%)* is *Intrinsic Value ÷ Previous Close*.

The *Intrinsic Value* of an *Enterprising* grade stock is its *Serenity Number*.

An *Enterprising* grade stock with an *Intrinsic Value(%)* of *200%* will have a *P/E* value of *5* and a *P/B* (tangible) value of *0.6* — or a higher value in one corresponding to a lower value in the other — yielding a total multiple of *3 (12 ÷ 2²)*.

## Finding Stocks

The below *Preset Links* will load *GrahamValue*'s two Graham screeners with stocks having *Graham Number(%)* higher than *200%*, and *Intrinsic Value(%)* higher than *200%* (both *Defensive* and *Enterprising*), respectively.

## Watch Video

*Submitted by GrahamValue. Created on Tuesday 13th August 2019. Updated on Tuesday 1st August 2023.*